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Slovenian

Slovene - Middle East & Eastern European Languages

Slovene (Listeni/ˈsloʊviːn/ or /sloʊˈviːn, slə-/[6]) or Slovenian (sloʊˈviːniən, slə-/; slovenskijezik or slovenščina), belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union. The distinctive characteristics of Slovene are adual grammatical number, two accentual norms (one characterized by pitch accent), and abundant inflection (a trait shared with many Slavic languages). Although Slovene is basically an SVO language, word order is very flexible, often adjusted for emphasis or stylistic reasons. Slovene has a T-V distinction: second-person plural forms are used for individuals as a sign of respect. Also, Slovene and Slovak are the two modern Slavic languages whose names for themselves literally mean "Slavic" (slov?n?sk? in old Slavonic). Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, together with Serbo-Croatian. The language is spoken by about 2.5 million people, mainly in Slovenia. It is also spoken in Croatia, especially in Istria, Rijeka and Zagreb, in southwestern Hungary, in Serbia, and by the Slovene diaspora throughout Europe and the rest of the world, particularly in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Slovene is sometimes characterized as the most diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects, with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects. Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine or eight. Slovene has a phoneme set consisting of 21 consonants and 8 vowels. Slovene has an eight-vowel system, in comparison to the five-vowel system of Serbo-Croatian. Slovene nouns retain six of the seven Slavic noun cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative and instrumental. There is no distinct vocative; the nominative is used in that role. Nouns, adjectives, and pronouns have three numbers: singular, plural and a special dual form that indicates exactly two objects. There are no definite or indefinite articles as in English (a, an, the) or German (der, die, das, ein, eine). A whole verb or a noun is described without articles and the grammatical gender is found from the word's termination.

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