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Slovak (Slovensky)

Slovak (Slovensky) - Middle East & Eastern European Languages

Slovak Slovak (sloʊvæk, -vɑːk) (Slovak: slovenský jazyk, pronounced [ˈsloʋenskiː ˈjazik], or slovenčina is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian). Slovak is the official language of Slovakia where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Croatia, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine and many others worldwide. The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule. The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced almost, but usually the same way. Word order in Slovak is relatively free since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis. Slovak does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: tá, neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be made explicit. Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is no longer morphologically marked. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives agree with nouns in case, number, and gender. The numerals between 0–10 have unique forms, and numerals between 1-4 do have even specific gendered representations as well. Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished.Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending -o or -e/-y. Sometimes both -o and -e are possible. Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech; they differ from Czech and from other Slovak dialects, and mutual contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.

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