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Bulgarian

Bulgarian - Middle East & Eastern European Languages 

Bulgarian (bʌlˈɡɛəriən,български език, pronounced [ˈbɤɫɡɐrski ɛˈzik]) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family. It is the language of the Bulgarians.Bulgarian, along with the closely related Macedonian language (collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), has several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article (see Balkan language area), and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system. Various evidential verb forms exist to express unwitnessed, retold, and doubtful action. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Bulgarian became one of the official languages of the European Union. The language is mainly split into two broad dialect areas, based on the different reflexes of the Common Slavic yatvowel (Ѣ). This split, which occurred at some point during the Middle Ages, led to the development of Bulgaria's Western dialects (informally called твърд говор/tvurdgovor – "hard speech") andEastern dialects (informally called мек говор/mekgovor – "soft speech"). Several Cyrillic alphabets with 28 to 44 letters were used in the beginning and the middle of the 19th century during the efforts on the codification of Modern Bulgarian until an alphabet with 32 letters, proposed by Marin Drinov, gained prominence in the 1870s. The alphabet of Marin Drinov was used until the orthographic reform of 1945, when the letters Ѣ, ѣ (called ят 'yat' or двойно е/е-двойно 'double e'), and Ѫ, ѫ (called Голям юс 'big yus', голяма носовка 'big nasal sign', ъ кръстато 'crossed yer' or широко ъ 'long yer'), were removed from its alphabet, reducing the number of letters to 30.Bulgarian possesses a phonology similar to that of the rest of the South Slavic languages, notably lacking Serbo-Croatian's phonemic vowel length and tones and alveo-palatal affricates.The parts of speech in Bulgarian are divided into 10 different types, which are categorized into two broad classes: mutable and immutable.

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