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Bihari

Bihari - Indian Language

Bihari is the western group of Eastern India languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, and Maithili are spoken in Nepal as well. The Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili speaking population form more than 21% of Nepalese population. Despite a large number of speakers of these languages, they have not been constitutionally recognized in India, except Maithili, which gained constitutional status via the 92nd amendment to the Constitution of India in 2003. Even in Bihar, Hindi is the language used for all the official and educational matters. These languages were legally absorbed under the predominant label of Hindi in the 1961 Census. Such state and national politics are creating conditions for language endangerments. Nalanda Open University offers various courses on Bihari languages (Magahi, Bhojpuri, Maithili).

 

In the medieval period, Bihar was largely ruined when visited by Hsüan-tsang, the famous Buddhist monk from China. It further suffered damage by the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century. Bihar passed through very uncertain times during the medieval period with the advent of the foreign aggression and eventual foreign subjugation of India. Muhammad of Ghor attacked this region of the Indian subcontinent multiple times. His armies destroyed many Buddhist structures, including the great Nalanda university. Education Bihar, India, has been a major center of learning, home to the universities of Nalanda (one of the earliest universities of India dating back to the fifth century) and Vikramshila. The tradition of learning which had its origin from the time of Buddha or perhaps earlier was lost during the medieval period when it is believed that marauding armies of the invaders destroyed these centers of learning. Bihar saw a revival during the later part of the British rule when they established a University at Patna along with other centers of high learning, viz. Science College, Patna, Prince of Wales Medical College (Now Patna Medical College and Hospital), and Bihar Engineering College (Now National Institute of Technology, Patna).

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